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    • September 23, 2014 4:11:24 PM PDT
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      The Higgs Boson and the Higgs Field

      The existence of the Higgs boson, a very small particle, has been researched at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. This project is an ongoing attempt to verify the idea of supersymmetry. The concept of supersymmetry states that every boson is related to a corresponding fermion and, subsequently, every fermion is related to a corresponding boson. This idea transcends or supersedes traditional symmetry within the widely recognized Standard Model of particle physics. How does the theory of supersymmetry go beyond traditional symmetry? In particle physics there are four fundamental interactions of nature. These are strong interaction, electromagnetism, gravitation and weak interaction. Weak interaction is also known as quantum flavordynamics. The weak force, or weak interaction, is defined in terms of the electro-weak theory. Weak interaction is responsible for the radioactive decay and nuclear fusion of subatomic particles. In the Standard Model of particle physics the weak interaction is caused by the release or absorption of bosons. All known fermions interact through weak interaction. A fermion can be an elementary particle like electrons or it can be a composite particle like protons. The mass of various bosons is much heavier than that of protons or neutrons. The mass of the bosons makes the weak nuclear force have a short range. It is a weak nuclear force because its field strength is consistently much less in magnitude than strong nuclear force and electromagnetism. The timeline of the Big Bang is as follows: Big Bang - Planck Epoch - Grand Unification Epoch - Electroweak Epoch - Quark Epoch - Hadron Epoch - Lepton Epoch - Photon Epoch - Dark Ages - Reionization! During the Quark Epoch (very soon after the initial Big Bang) the temperature of the universe was too great to allow quarks to bind together and form hadrons. The preceding Electroweak Epoch ended as the electroweak interaction split into the weak interaction and electromagnetism. During the Quark Epoch the universe was a dense, hot quark-gluon plasma. Mesons and baryons could not yet form from the quarks. When quarks succeeded in being confined in hadrons it would mark the dawn of the Hadron Epoch on the aforementioned timeline of the Big Bang. Therefore, during the Quark Epoch the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces. Most fermions eventually decay by weak interaction. Examples of these decaying fermions include beta decay (where the production of deuterium and helium from hydrogen powers the sun's and other stars' nuclear processes), radiocarbon dating and radioluminescence. The weak interaction out of the four fundamental interactions of nature is unique because it breaks parity-symmetry and Charge Parity symmetry. This is also referred to as CP violation. The universe consists primarily of matter instead of equal parts of matter and antimatter. If the tenets of Charge Parity symmetry were preserved immediately after the Big Bang then equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been produced. Theoretically this would have caused cancellations...protons cancelling antiprotons, electrons cancelling positrons and neutrons cancelling antineutrons. This would have created an ocean of radiation in the universe and no matter. So what happened just after the Big Bang? Experiments indicate that the weak force's symmetry (such as during the Electroweak Epoch) should cause the bosons to have 0 mass. This is not the case! The weak forces bosons are very massive and short-ranging. The mass and short-range of the bosons makes material structures such as atoms and stars possible. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical model. It explains how bosons could retain their mass despite their governing symmetry. The Higgs mechanism states that the conditions for the symmetry would be broken if a field happened to exist in all of space. Then the particles would be able to have mass. The Higgs Field: According to the Standard Model the Higgs Field exists throughout space and breaks certain symmetry laws of the electroweak interaction. This field triggers the Higgs mechanism, causing the bosons responsible for the weak force to be massive. Furthermore, this may explain why electrons and quarks have mass, too. The existence of the Higgs Field might be proven by identifying a matching particle associated with it. Detecting the Higgs bosons in their various renditions or forms would prove that the Higgs Field exists. Particle colliders, detectors and computers capable of looking for Higgs bosons have taken some decades to develop. By 2013 scientists have virtually proven that the Higgs boson exists and thus the Higgs Field permeates the known universe. Certainly, additional research is necessary. According to Rolf Dieter-Heuer, "[The] verification of real scalar fields would be nearly as important as its role in generating mass." Some people think the Higgs Field (a scalar field) could be the inflation responsible for the exponential expansion of the universe during the Big Bang. Speculatively, the Higgs Field has been proposed to be the energy of the vacuum. Through the successive symmetry-breakings of the Higgs Field at phase transitions the present universe's known forces and fields arise. Personally, I am also interested in the significance and function of black holes. A black hole can be very large or so small that it is evaporated. According to Stephen Hawking black holes do radiate some particles. Also, dark matter may be related to the reactions observed in the early Big Bang. I have read about white holes (theoretically from which new universes might emerge) and creation and annihilation operators in quantum field theories. Another interesting avenue of scientific exploration are states, including "squeezed coherent states" along with vacuum state, squeezed vacuum state, phase squeezed state, arbitrary squeezed state and amplitude-squeezed state. Squeezed coherent states relate to Hawking radiation...such as the radiation from black holes. Can a black hole become a white hole? I don't know but certainly the continued research of the Higgs Field and Higgs bosons are bound to reveal a greater knowledge for mankind of the changing fabric and properties of the universe as it ages. And the possibility of the existence of other universes in the past and future and multiple dimensions via string theory or M-theory and the S-matrix and D-brane.

      This post was edited by MattD at June 30, 2016 2:53:11 AM PDT
    • November 2, 2016 7:39:46 PM PDT
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      The Higgs Boson and the Higgs Field

      "Can a black hole become a white hole?"

      I'd like to spend some more time reading this monster post of yours, but I saw this and thought I ought to answer it off the bat. Theoretically, a black hole can turn into a white hole if you change either it's charge or angular momentum sufficiently, creating what's called a "naked singularity".

      There's a magic equality that goes as such:

      Q^2 + (J / M)^2 < M^2

      If you increase J or Q and falsify the inequality, what remains is the white hole you seek.
      Hope that piques some interest!

    • October 23, 2018 4:16:33 AM PDT
    • The Higgs Boson and the Higgs Field

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